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Inventing History : forgery: a great British tradition (British History)
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Boreades


In: finity and beyond
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Are the Anglo-Saxonists about to be disappeared?

Academics have called for the term Anglo-Saxon to be dropped because it is “bound up with white supremacy” — an idea described as “mad as a bag of ferrets” by one historian.

The term traditionally refers to groups from across the North Sea, including Angles and Saxons, who settled in Britain after the end of Roman rule, and to their descendants and their culture until the Norman Conquest.

However, it has also been used by imperialists and white-supremacists to describe white people of British origin. Hitler wrote admiringly of “Anglo-Saxon determination” to hold India. Some academics believe that the term is not only tainted by these associations but is also historically inaccurate.

The term “Anglo-Saxon” gained popularity in the 1700-1800s as a way of linking white people “to their supposed origins”

Mary Rambaran-Olm, a specialist in early medieval England, wrote this week in History…


etc

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/drop-the-term-anglo-saxon-as-it-is-bound-up-with-white-supremacy-say-academics-d66dlztfj

https://medievalistsofcolor.com/race-in-the-profession/statement-of-support-for-dr-mary-rambaran-olm/

Some say the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists (ISAS) should be renamed to something like the International Society of Inclusive-Saxonists (ISIS). What could possibly go wrong?
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Hatty
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Mick Harper wrote:
...what interested me is Cicero being the Great Survivor. As a world record, I think that must be our next port of call.

Cicero is in a class of his own and therefore under suspicion, uniqueness being invariably a major red flag.

In 68 B.C. his letters begin, from which (and especially those to T. Pomponius A, his “second self”), we obtain wholly unique knowledge of Roman life

If they were consciously written for posterity, how to account for their variability, ranging from everyday family matters to serious treatises? It's the wide range of subjects encompassed by the Cicero letters that makes them so precious, not just to Classical historians but to the world

The period covered by the letters of Cicero is one of the most interesting and momentous in the history of the world, and these letters afford a picture of the chief personages and most important events of that age from the pen of a man who was not only himself in the midst of the conflict, but who was a consummate literary artist.


There are thirty-seven books of Cicero letters, another thirty-five books have gone missing/been lost. He is credited with having written 800 or so letters but aside from marvelling at how many survived, the odd thing about the Cicero collection is it includes letters from him as well as to him. Someone, presumably his secretary, either made copies or went and asked to have his letters back

Plutarch wrote that during Senate hearings in 65 BC relating to the first Catilinarian conspiracy, Tiro and Cicero's other secretaries were in the audience meticulously and rapidly transcribing Cicero's oration. On many of the oldest Tironian tables, lines from this speech were frequently used as examples, leading scholars to theorize it was originally transcribed using Tironian shorthand. Scholars also believe that in preparation for speeches, Tiro drafted outlines in shorthand that Cicero used as notes while speaking

According to historians, Cicero's orations and letters were copied out and thus passed on to posterity by his amanuensis, Tiro. It is probably fair to say that without Tiro there'd be no extant Cicero writings but the task may have been a bit too much for one person alone. Since Tironian notes/ shorthand have been classified as written 'in various hands' it's a reasonable assumption to say abbreviated words were quite routinely used, in Latin as elsewhere, whether a 'Tironian system' or not.

The situation is we have no original manuscripts of Cicero's speeches or letters, and no record of 'Tiro' until medieval times

There are no surviving copies of Tiro's original manual and code, so knowledge of it is based on biographical records and copies of Tironian tables from the medieval period

So from the first German publication of 1531 to the English 1620 edition ("the very scarce first complete translation into English of all 16 books of Cicero’s familiar epistles") there's a missing millennium. And more puzzling still, he is being published in the mid-nineteenth century 'from the original'

The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero: Comprising his Treatise on the Commonwealth; and his Treatise on the Laws. Translated from the original, with Dissertations and Notes in Two Volumes. By Francis Barham, Esq. (London: Edmund Spettigue, 1841-42).
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Mick Harper
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We've got problems too. The Tironsensians (aka Tiron and the wondrous Latin shorthand) are a monastic order too early to be mixed up with Petrarch (presumably aka Plutarch) and the early Renaissance dudes who are in turn too early for this Anglo-German ramp.

We keep coming up against these bare-faced lies (it surely can't just be serial wishful thinking) about the 'originals'. The zillion-dollar AEL prize is still available to anybody who can produce a single one. There doesn't go my pension.
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Hatty
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I was way out, the first publication of Cicero's work is officially dated 1465

In 1465 Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer issued De officiis with Paradoxa Stoicorum. Hexasticha XII Sapientum de titulo Ciceronis. Horatius Flaccus: Ad T. Manlium Torquatum (Car. IV 7) from Mainz. This edition, and coincidentally two other editions of texts by Cicero also printed in 1465, were the first editions of classical texts issued through the medium of printing.

Johann Fust was subsequently written 'Faust', apparently his grandson's typo! Not, we are admonished, the same person as Dr Johann Faust, the famous magician. But misspellings are as nothing compared to other goings-on in the printing business

There is no evidence for the theory that Johann Fust was a goldsmith, but he appears to have been a money-lender or banker. Because of his connection with Johann Gutenberg, he has been called the inventor of printing, and the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg. Some see him as a patron and benefactor who saw the value of Gutenberg's discovery and supplied him with means to carry it out, whereas others portray him as a speculator who took advantage of Gutenberg's necessity and robbed him of the profits of his invention.

Gutenberg is universally lauded as 'the inventor of printing' but how do we know?

Whatever the truth, the Helmasperger document of November 6, 1455, shows that Fust advanced money to Gutenberg (apparently 800 guilders in 1450, and another 800 in 1452) to carry on his work, and that Fust, in 1455, brought a suit against Gutenberg to recover the money he had lent, claiming 2026 guilders for principal and interest.

The suit was apparently decided in Fust's favour, November 6, 1455, in the refectory of the Barefooted Friars of Mainz, when Fust swore that he himself had borrowed 1550 guilders and given them to Gutenberg. There is no evidence that Fust, as is usually supposed, removed the portion of the printing materials covered by his mortgage to his own house, and carried on printing there with the aid of Peter Schöffer of Gernsheim (who is known to have been a scriptor at Paris in 1449), who in about 1455 married Fust's only daughter Christina.

Normal no doubt for printing /publishing families but it gives the history of printing a bad press.

Of much importance in the history of the discovery of printing is Zell's statement, preserved in the Chronicle of Cologne of 1499, that the year 1450 was the date of the beginning of printing, that the country-squire Johann Gutenberg was the inventor of it, and that the first book printed was the Latin Bible, the Vulgate.

Wiki says the first book printed was Ars Minor, a Latin grammar/rhetoric because Gutenberg 'correctly judged the market' though Cicero wasn't far behind

De Officiis was the third book to be printed—third only to the Gutenberg Bible and Donatus's "Ars Minor", which was the first printed book.[

...which is fascinating because Donatus is totally unknown except St Jerome said 'he was my tutor'. Cicero of course needed no introduction and other editions followed, apparently more or less simultaneously

About 1465 printer Ulrich ZellOffsite Link issued Cicero's De officiis from Cologne. Zell learned printing in Mainz at the shop of Fust and Schöffer, and is thought to have begun printing in Cologne as early as 1463. However, a number of his books are undated, as is this edition of De officiis. If it was issued in 1465 it is one of the three earliest printed editions of a classical text, all of which appeared in 1465.

The Romans caught up quickly

The third edition of a classical text issued in 1465 was the edition of Cicero's De oratore issued at the Abbey of Subiaco, Italy by Sweynheim and Pannartz in September, 1465.
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Hatty
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Mick Harper wrote:
The Tironsensians (aka Tiron and the wondrous Latin shorthand) are a monastic order too early to be mixed up with Petrarch (presumably aka Plutarch) and the early Renaissance dudes who are in turn too early for this Anglo-German ramp.

Tironensians, if that is what they were called, may have been linked to the Benedictine order, possibly in a secretarial role but would become obsolete with the introduction of printing.

Subiaco is a Benedictine abbey north of Rome, in the Lazio mountains. Founded by St Benedict, it claims to be even older than Monte Cassino and, despite being destroyed (twice) by 'Saracens', enjoyed a golden age in the 11th-12th centuries, to become a major pilgrimage /tourist destination.

When St. Benedict, at the age of fourteen (c. 494), retired from the world and lived for three years in a cave above the river Anio, he was supplied with the necessaries of life by a monk, St. Roman. From this grotto, St. Benedict developed the concepts and organization of the Benedictine Order. He built twelve monasteries, including one at the grotto, and placed twelve monks in each.

In 854 a record[citation needed] noted its renovation. In this year, Pope Leo IV is said to have consecrated an altar to Sts. Benedict and Scholastica and another to St. Sylvester. Another renovation took place in 1053 under Abbot Humbert of St. Scholastica. Abbot John V, created cardinal by Pope Gregory VII, made the grotto the terminus of a yearly procession, built a new road, and had the altars reconsecrated.

But it kept abreast of technology

At a time when several German monks had been assigned to the monastery, German printers established a printing press in the town. They printed the first books in Italy in the late 15th century.

In the course of publishing Cicero's letters the two printers, Pannarz and Sweynheim, came up with a new font type

In 1467, the two printers left Subiaco and settled at Rome, where the brothers Pietro and Francesco Massimo placed a house at their disposal. The same year, they published an edition of Cicero's letters that gave its name to the cicero, the Continental equivalent of the pica. Their proof and manuscript reader was Giovan de' Bussi, since 1469 Bishop of Aleria in Corsica.

Their venture was not a success. Few apparently wanted to read books by Classical writers.
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