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Fake or Find (APPLIED EPISTEMOLOGY)
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Hatty
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Wile E. Coyote wrote:
The Luwians (they are getting portrayed as magicians and seafarers) appear to serve a similar function to vikings in European dark age history in the minds of those advocating their existence.

To be honest I am not sure whether I have grasped the basics.

A noticeable scepticism exists about the World War Zero theory and the Luwians mainly due to the lack of archaeological evidence.

Zangger’s colleagues have reacted more skeptically of his otherwise seemingly consistent theory. „For Zangger’s theory of a mighty civilization to become truly undeniable, archaeologists must find examples of monumental art and architecture across western Anatolia, and texts from the same places,“ says Christoph Bahuber- a professor and Orientalist at Oxford University.

Scientists believe the theory is just a „pathetic story.“ Bahuber reminds that historians should question the ancient epics, including the work of Homer. According to the scientist they hardly contain even a small part of historical truth.

http://ancients-bg.com/world-war-zero/

It's a pity this common-sense approach isn't applied to other groups that haven't left any tangible traces.
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Hatty
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Lost Latin commentary on the Gospels rediscovered after 1,500 years

The earliest Latin commentary on the Gospels, lost for more than 1,500 years, has been rediscovered and made available in English for the first time. The extraordinary find, a work written by a bishop in northern Italy, Fortunatianus of Aquileia, dates back to the middle of the fourth century.

Extraordinary, yes, because of its provenance, in this case Cologne Cathedral library

Despite references to this commentary in other ancient works, no copy was known to survive until Lukas Dorfbauer, a researcher from the University of Salzburg, identified Fortunatianus’ text in an anonymous manuscript copied around the year 800 and held in Cologne Cathedral Library.


The manuscript is said to be ninth-century but the Latin commentary is a 4th-century Roman text

Scholars had previously been interested in this ninth-century manuscript as the sole witness to a short letter which claimed to be from the Jewish high priest Annas to the Roman philosopher Seneca. They had dismissed the 100-page anonymous Gospel commentary as one of numerous similar works composed in the court of Charlemagne. But when he visited the library in 2012, Dorfbauer, a specialist in such writings, could see that the commentary was much older than the manuscript itself.


Cologne Cathedral was begun in 1248. As usual, there were earlier sites none of which survived. Wiki has the details

When construction began on the present Cologne Cathedral in 1248, the site had already been occupied by several previous structures. The earliest may have been for grain storage, and possibly was succeeded by a Roman temple built by Mercurius Augustus. From the 4th century on, however, the site was occupied by Christian buildings, including a square edifice known as the "oldest cathedral" that was commissioned by Maternus, the first bishop of Cologne. A free-standing baptistery dating back to the 7th century was located at the east end of the present cathedral, but was demolished in the 9th century to build the second cathedral. Only ruins of the baptistery and the octagonal baptismal font remain today. The second church, called the "Old Cathedral", was completed in 818. It was destroyed by fire on 30 April 1248, during demolition work to prepare for a new cathedral.


But this glib comment sounds a warning

Later Christian authors, such as Rabanus Maurus and Claudius of Turin, searched for it in vain. As with so many works from antiquity, it seemed to have been lost, the remaining copies destroyed in a Vandal raid or eaten by mice in a dusty library.

because Claudius of Turin seems strangely ahead of his time vis-a-vis church reform and Rabanus Maurus, a German intellectual, "compiled a pedagogical treatise (c. 810; “On the Formation of Clerics”) that constituted an apology for the Christian study of the liberal arts. His De arte grammatica (“On the Grammatical Art”), derived from the great 6th-century Latinist Priscian, Alcuin, and the 8th-century Anglo-Saxon monk, scholar, and historian Bede, contributed to the medieval development of logic."

Astonishingly, despite being copied four centuries after the last reference to his Gospel commentary, this manuscript seemed to preserve the original form of Fortunatianus’ groundbreaking work.

Such a discovery is of considerable significance to our understanding of the development of Latin biblical interpretation, which went on to play such an important part in the development of Western thought and literature. In this substantial commentary, Fortunatianus is reliant on even earlier writings which formed the link between Greek and Latin Christianity.

http://religionnews.com/2017/08/28/lost-latin-commentary-on-the-gospels-rediscovered-after-1500-years-thanks-to-digital-technology/

There really does seem to be a time lapse here.
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Mick Harper
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because Claudius of Turin seems strangely ahead of his time vis-a-vis church reform

If you watched Janina Ramirez' England's Reformation: Three Books that Changed a Nation this week (quite good by the way) you will know that transubstantiation was a thoroughly modern concern (relatively) which makes the 'Anglo-Saxon' discussions about it rather mystifying.

La Ramirez stumbled on the truth herself when she breathlessly explained that Thomas Cranmer was desperate to find material proving that the English Catholic Church preceded the Roman Catholic Church. And found it! Not that this gave our Janina pause for thought. She still had the Book of Martyrs to cover in the sixty minutes.

That by the way is perfectly genuine though the martyring episodes aren't necessarily. Janina covered a Guernsey burning in great detail -- which again is quite genuine if the records are to be believed -- though the story of 'the perfect baby boy' leaping out of the womb, then out of the flames, then into the arms of a Protestant, then back into the flames at the hands of a Catholic leaves ... what is the correct expression? ... something to the imagination. Still, Janina believed it which should be good enough for you lot. I'm from Guernsey, we don't do that sort of thing. Catlicks or proddy dogs.
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Mick Harper
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While checking the records I discovered something quite interesting. Once Mary was out and Lizzie back in, everything was set fair for Anglicanism. The only problem was that the Channel Island Protestant intellectuals (oh yes, we do have them) had scarpered over to Geneva during the Marian interlude and came back Calvinists.

Elizabeth couldn't exactly stop them so ordained that there could be one Calvinist Church in St Peter Port and one in St Helier. Unfortunately in such small islands everyone could pop along and hear the real thing rather than woolly old Henricianism so soon Guernsey (though not Jersey, they're a bit thick) was a puritan hotspot. Cue the English Civil War and all sorts of naval mullarkey.
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Hatty
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If you watched Janina Ramirez' England's Reformation: Three Books that Changed a Nation this week

I've tried but was put off by the opening premise -- insistence on a 'battle for the soul of the nation' or somesuch -- which seems overly dogmatic. Foxe's Book of Martyrs is always described as a best-seller because, as Ramirez knows, the government wanted a copy on every church lectern. Does this tell you what the majority people wanted to read or even actually read?
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Boreades


In: finity and beyond
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Has this been mentioned?

Leonardo da Vinci’s “Salvator Mundi” sold on Wednesday night for $450.3 million with fees — nearly half a billion dollars. The staggering sum blew away the previous record for art sold at auction, which was Picasso’s “Women of Algiers" $179.4 million — pocket change to the buyers of the da Vinci.

But the painting known as "the male Mona Lisa" has an odd story, one shrouded in mystery and allegations of fakery.

The painting of Jesus Christ as Salvator Mundi (Savior of the World) was reputedly commissioned by Louis XII of France in 1506 from da Vinci, the world's most famous artist at the time. After its delivery, it remained in London for 400 years.

But the painting somehow ended up in the collection of Sir Francis Cook, who in 1958 sold it through Sotheby's for just $60. At that time, the painting was attributed to a student of da Vinci named Giovanni Boltraffio, and not considered to be an authentic da Vinci work.

A consortium of art dealers in New York reportedly bought the painting at a clearance sale in 2004 for just $10,000. They had the dark, heavily overpainted work cleaned and restored and then assessed by experts, who deemed it an real work of the Renaissance master.


http://www.dailywire.com/news/23647/it-fake-da-vinci-painting-fetched-450-million-joseph-curl

or

a well-known expert in the field leaned over and asked me a question. “Why is a Leonardo in a Modern and Contemporary auction?” Before I could say, “Yeah! Why?” he answered, “Because 90 percent of it was painted in the last 50 years.”

Why else do I think this is a sham? Experts estimate that there are only 15 to 20 existing da Vinci paintings. Not a single one of them pictures a person straight on like this one. There is also not a single painting picturing an individual Jesus either. All of his paintings, even single portraits, depict figures in far more complex poses. Even the figure that comes remotely close to this painting, Saint John the Baptist, also from 1500, gives us a turning, young, randy-looking man with hair utterly different from and much more developed in terms of painting than the few curls Christie’s is raving about in their picture. Leonardo was an inventor of — and in love with — posing people in dynamic, weaving, more curved, and corkscrewing positions, predicting the compositions of Raphael, then in his 20s, and already being highly influenced, according to Vasari, by his acquaintance Leonardo. Renaissance masters were all about letting figures interact with the surface and the structure of the painting, curving space, involving the viewer in way more than an old-fashioned direct headshot. Leonardo never let a subject come at you all at once like this much more Byzantine, flat, forward-facing symmetry. No other Renaissance master was involved with Byzantine portraiture like this either. They were all pushing way beyond that by then.


http://www.vulture.com/2017/11/christies-says-this-painting-is-by-leonardo-i-doubt-it.html
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Mick Harper
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I thought this too blatant to merit our attention but since you ask...
1. It’s more world record syndrome. These chance finds are meant to be chance but, no, always at the top of the market.
2. This is not a forgery but a misattribution. How do we know?

But the painting somehow ended up in the collection of Sir Francis Cook, who in 1958 sold it through Sotheby's for just $60. At that time, the painting was attributed to a student of da Vinci named Giovanni Boltraffio, and not considered to be an authentic da Vinci work.

Nobody forges paintings worth sixty dollars.

A consortium of art dealers in New York reportedly bought the painting at a clearance sale in 2004 for just $10,000. They had the dark, heavily overpainted work cleaned and restored and then assessed by experts, who deemed it an real work of the Renaissance master.

The key here is consortium i.e. not one person getting lucky but .... a lot of people getting lucky together. One is a possibility, many is a conspiracy.

They had the dark, heavily overpainted work cleaned and restored and then assessed by experts, who deemed it an real work of the Renaissance master.

No they didn’t. They passed it round the experts to find who would ‘deem’ it authentic in return for their $5000 fee. One expert would not jeopardise his reputation for a fee but a group of experts cannot, as it were, be falsified.
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Wile E. Coyote


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You have to hang (err) your guess on something.

Wiley is not your wolf for artistic expression (connoisseurship) as for history (provenance) I would defer to my betters.

The levels of Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan in the picture, one of the most sought after pigments and more valued than gold, show that it's not likely a cheap forgery.

Actually I reckon it's the real deal.

I will take the flak.
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Mick Harper
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There is no such thing as a cheap forgery.
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Grant



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The main proof that this is a conspiracy is
- as Mick said, there was a group of experts/dealers who said it was a Leonardo, all benefiting from deluding themselves, either deliberately or on purpose
- the fact that at no stage has Leonardo not had a stellar reputation. How could someone ever forget that they had a picture by Leonardo?
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Hatty
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Wile E. Coyote wrote:
The Luwians (they are getting portrayed as magicians and seafarers) appear to serve a similar function to vikings in European dark age history in the minds of those advocating their existence.

It occurred to me that viking is voyager (French voyageur, Spanish viajero). It's a general term applied at some point to a specific group of people, as with Franks, pilgrims and indeed Travellers.
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Mick Harper
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Most ingenious. The linguists are big on Luwian as being some kind of Indo-European base language, which might fit, ignoring their soppy assumptions and making our own assumption of it being an Indo-European pidgin.
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Boreades


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Hatty wrote:
Rabanus Maurus, a German intellectual, "compiled a pedagogical treatise (c. 810; “On the Formation of Clerics”) that constituted an apology for the Christian study of the liberal arts.


Err, I'm all for apologies.

It's how I get the last word in arguments with my wife. (if it's not "sorry", it's "yes dear")

But was he for or against the liberal arts?
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Hatty
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Yes, I apologise. At the time I was writing in ignorance of the fact there is no archaeological evidence of the cathedral at Mainz in the 8th-9th century where Rabanus was 'Archbishop' (cf. the Venerable Bede) nor of Fulda Abbey (where he 'was ordained'). No-one can say he's invented since Rabanus Maurus is the praeceptor or 'teacher of Germany' (cf. the Venerable Bede).

He is most unlikely to have been the author of pedagogical treatises or indeed of anything. All that can be said is a thirteenth-century copy of a book of poems purportedly written by Rabanus Maurus is in a Florentine library built by the Medici pope Clement VII to display the family's private collection of books and manuscripts.
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